Postural effects on the utilization of elastic strain energy and respiratory regulation

(1)The Forward-Leaning Posture to Maximize the Use of Elastic Energy
Strain energy is released when the deformed elastic elements of the body recover their resting lengths and original shapes. The stretch-shortening cycle of the Achilles’ tendon is succinctly exhibiting the mechanics of this catapult action, which spontaneously occurs to be utilized as initiatory impulses for various locomotor movements. Walking, skipping, running, and jumping are bipedal movements critically driven by elastic energy.
The relaxation of the diaphragm catalyzes expiration, and the body gradually becomes relaxed, from the pelvic floor muscles, and bent forward to the ground in the concentric phase of exhalation. The forward-leaning posture is achieved through this chain reaction at various degrees of torso angle, upon diverse stances. Furthermore, the storage of strain energy increases, as the muscle-tendon units of the posterior chain are stretched.
In the forward-leaning posture, the body is highly responsive to respiratory stimuli. The following are the two determinants that enhance the connectivity of the upper and lower body parts: (a)compressed abdominal muscles that cause deep expiration setting up a new respiratory and postural balance to be maintained by subsequent inspiration (b)the forefoot bearing the significant amount of body weight upon itself, sufficient to play as the primary base of support.


Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. S.K. Powers and E.T. Howley. 10th edition. McGraw Hill publishers

Anatomy & Physiology, Edited and Revised by Lindsay M. Biga, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick, Jon Runyeon Art edited and created by Leeah Whittier
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Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed, Adrian Lai, Anthony G. Schache, Yi-Chung Lin and Marcus G. Pandy, 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | The Journal of Experimental Biology (2014) 217, 3159-3168 doi:10.1242/jeb.100826

MAXIMIZING THE USE OF ELASTIC ENERGY IN A STRETCH SHORTEN CYCLE, MOVEMENT WILSON, G.J.i ELLIO’FJ!, B.C. Department of Human Movement and Recreation Studies University of Western Australia .+ Australia, 1990

Elastic energy storage in tendons: mechanical differences related to function and age, Robert E. Shadwick, Department of Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada, J.APPL.PHYSIOL. 68(3): 1033-1040, 1990

Biomechanics: A catapult action for rapid limb protraction, Article in Nature · February 2003, DOI: 10.1038/421035a · Source: PubMed, Allen M. Willson, Glen A.Lichtwark, Johanna Watson

Take-off and landing forces in jumping frogs, Sandra Nauwelaerts1,* and Peter Aerts1,2 1Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Antwerpen, Belgium and 2Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, University of Ghent, Watersportlaan 2, B-9000 Gent, Belgium, The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 66-77 Published by The Company of Biologists 2006, doi:10.1242/jeb.01969

The Quadrupedal Nature of Human Bipedal Locomotion, E. Paul Zehr1,2,3, Sandra R. Hundza1,4, and Erin V. Vasudevan5,6 1Rehabilitation Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria; 2International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver; 3Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Victoria; 4CanAssist, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; 5Motion Analysis Lab, Kennedy Krieger Institute; and 6Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ZEHR, E.P., S.R. HUNDZA, and E.V. VASUDEVAN

NYTKE Festival 2019 in Tampere, Finland

NYTKE festival is the contemporary dance festival, which took place on July 15-20, 2019 in Tampere, Finland. The workshops of the FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality were delivered in two formats: (1)Professionally trained group (2)Open Level. Plus, the showcase for a duet piece with Nelly Hakkarainen was held on the last day of the festival at Tanssiteatteri MD. The following are the pictures taken by Raf Mielczarek and Matti Kilponen (chilpura on Instagram).

wooguru-nytke 2019.jpg

nelly-nytke 2019.jpg

nelly-wooguru-nytke 2019.jpgphotographed by Raf Mielczarek



dscf3584-xt-2jpg_48329214547_o.jpgphotographed by Matti Kilponen


Patterned Movement is the term referring to the sets of the elementary moves: breathing, crawling, standing, walking, running, and jumping. Those are foundational and critical for the execution of complex motor tasks; however, the significance of the basic tends to be neglected as techniques are mastered to be used and performed at professional levels. Technically speaking, respiratory regulation, postural control, and contralateral movements are the notions that specify the essential principles of the biomechanics of human movements, which regulate and sustain the body in a concerted manner.

The workshop that took place at ARTWEEN STUDIO in Seoul, S.Korea on July 7, 2019, was to remind experienced performing artists <bboys, contemporary dancers, mime artists> of the fundamentals of movements, universal to the human body, regardless of style and discipline.


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/Recommended readings


1.5 Homeostasis


Respiration Control

Neural Control of Ventilation

22.3 The Process of Breathing

Muscles System/ Musculoskeletal system–function


Muscle Stretch Reflex


Foot Movement & Elastic recoil

Landing Mechanics

Movement System


The Aesthetics of Volitional Movements and its creation process at the BAU Institute in S.Korea, 2019

The AESTHETICS OF VOLITIONAL MOVEMENTS: the duet version of <FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality> performed with Nelly Hakkarainen at Gwangju Fringe Festival in July 2019, created at the BAU Institute in S.Korea from June to July 2019

Nelly Hakkarainen-Wooguru Kw-Gwangju-fringe-2019-promotion photo

Brief Description: The dance piece that depicts two individuals with contrasting movement qualities, moving freely in a harmonious and respectful manner that builds a creative community for both of them


The passage leading to the BAU Institute where is a new research base for ecologically sustainable practices, located in Younggwang, Jeollanamdo, S.Korea

Nelly Hakkarainen at the BAU Institute in S.Korea, June 2019(1)Respiration: Inspiration (expansion for energy production) & Expiration (compression/ relaxation for the expulsion of the by-products of carbon oxidation)
(2)How respiration regulates and initiates all types of the physical movements of the body
(3)Respiration: the origin of the rhythmicality of human movement
(4)The uniqueness of the individual body: the physical characteristics and the peculiarities within itself, in which to generate personal requirements physiologically and psychologically
(5)The restoration of the inherent respiratory flow of the individual body for promoting freedom of movement
(6)Dance as the most explicit form of artistic expression toward the total freedom of the individual body

Nelly Hakkarainen- Wooguru Kw at Gwangju Fringe Festival 2019






FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality at Tanssille in Helsinki on April 18, 2019


<FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality> is a new contemporary dance technique focused on biomechanics for the attainment of the total freedom of the individual body and its integrity. The technical emphasis is on the basis of jumping techniques used for facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the following subjects: the postural neutrality to foster the natural respiratory flow of one’s body, the releasing techniques to improve the forefoot movements as the base of support, the explosive techniques initiated by the abdominal breathing, and the landing mechanism to convert impact force into the kinetic energy for subsequent moves.

Wooguru Kw is a choreographer and a movement analyst. Free Flow: physicality toward musicality is an educational method developed from and named after his authentic style, which has been presented and conducted in the symposium of the German Association for Dance Science 2018, Seoul Dance Center 2016-2017, and the Free Flow Education Project connecting the Baltics to South Korea 2015-2018. His dance works have been invited from Tanztage Berlin 2014, Moving Poets Festival Berlin(DE) – Charlotte(US) 2013-2015, Urban Poetry in Riga 2015, Movement Research A.I.R in NY 2012, and so on.


Creative Dance Class for Children [FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality]

Creative Dance Class for Children [FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality]
led by Nelly Hakkarainen & Wooguru Kw

1- Description of the Creative Dance Class for Children
The human body is to sustain itself spontaneously with its continual movements for the natural development of its physical characteristics and inherent peculiarities, in which to distinguish itself from the others. This continuation of physical movements initiates the growth process toward the actualization of the potentialities within the individual body. Thereby, promoting the spontaneous and volitional movements for addressing individual requirements in the social context is the emphasis of the creative dance class for children, established upon the biomechanics of the human body.

2 – Subjects designed regarding the order of the growth process from physical to cognitive abilities
1- Animal locomotion for the improvement of motor skill and overall physicality
2- Physical interpretation of the stimulatory sound and music
3- Creating one’s moves with various imaginary instruments
4- Playing creative and inclusive games in promoting sociability

3 – FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality is the new physical/ training method focused on biomechanics for the attainment of the total freedom of the individual body and its integrity. Its educational project has been conducted in Latvia, Lithuania, and South Korea since 2016, and also has been presented at the GTF symposium 2018 [German Association for Dance Science] at Karlsruhe tech institute in Germany, the colloquium 2017 of the research base of the Buddhist thought at Wonkwang Univ. in South Korea, and the seminar 2017 of the Lithuanian Association for Quality Management and Innovation at Vilnius Univ. in Lithuania.

4 – Brief introduction of the conductors
Nelly Hakkarainen is a dancer, a choreographer, and a dance educator. She has been working in the dance education field since 2012 and also has established her career as a dancer and choreographer in Berlin, Germany in collaboration with a variety of international dance productions. She is a certified Pilates trainer and currently studies in the faculty of art research at the University of Helsinki.
Wooguru Kw is a dancer, a choreographer, and a movement analyst, developing the new physical education/ training method called “FREE FLOW: physicality toward musicality” which is named after his authentic style of dancing. His dance works and educational project have been performed and conducted in various countries. Currently, he is based in Helsinki, Finland and focuses on writing a book regarding his educational method.